Contenido del artículo principal

Resumen

Introducción: El trasplante renal se ha destacado como la mejor terapia renal sustitutiva para la enfermedad renal crónica terminal, aunque conlleva una serie de riesgos entre los que el cáncer se destaca cada vez más, por lo que parece importante determinar el impacto que tiene en esta población.
Objetivo: Conocer y sintetizar la evidencia científica acerca de la incidencia de neoplasias en pacientes trasplantados renales, así como las variables relacionadas con las mismas.
Metodología: Se realizó una revisión sistemática en la que se incluyeron 14 artículos procedentes de las bases de Pubmed, Scopus, Scielo, WOS y Google Académico. Como términos MeSH se utilizaron: neoplasias (neoplasms), trasplante de riñón (kidney transplantation), incidencia (incidence), riesgo (risk), factores de riesgo (risk factors). Se incluyeron artículos originales en inglés y español, en población trasplantada adulta.
Resultados: Se incluyeron 14 artículos de diseño observacional. De la revisión emergieron como principales variables: incidencia general, datos demográficos y tratamientos previos, otras características asociadas, tumores más frecuentes y medidas preventivas.
Conclusiones: La incidencia de neoplasias en el paciente trasplantado es alta, sobre todo en la edad avanzada y pacientes con tratamiento inmunosupresor con ciclosporina y azatioprina siendo este último, junto al trasplante procedente de cadáver, los principales factores de riesgo encontrados. Los cánceres de piel no melanoma son los más prevalentes y como medidas de prevención se destaca llevar a cabo un cribado rutinario, fomento de una vida saludable, y promoción y potenciación de la vacunación de la hepatitis B.

Palabras clave

neoplasms kidney transplantation incidence risk factors neoplasias trasplante de riñón incidencia factores de riesgo

Detalles del artículo

Cómo citar
1.
Guillén-Gómez I, Blanco-García M, Aránega-Gavilán S, Crespo-Montero R. Alteraciones neoplásicas en el paciente trasplantado renal. Una revisión sistemática. Enferm Nefrol [Internet]. 30 de septiembre de 2022 [citado 7 de diciembre de 2022];25(3):204-15. Disponible en: https://www.enfermerianefrologica.com/revista/article/view/4524

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